First, the basic requirements of mold manufacturing:
1, high manufacturing precision
2, long service life
3, short manufacturing cycle
4, the mold cost is low
Second, the characteristics of modern mold manufacturing:
Relying on human factors,
Poor reproduction ability,
Overall not easy to control
Relying on material factors,
Serial mode, it is easy to cause design and manufacturing disconnection,
Repeated labor and long processing cycle
Parallel mode, sharing mathematical models and databases
Less repetitive work and shorter processing cycle
Evaluation by trial mode, more repairs, high cost
Computer simulation and simulation to improve the mold structure, less repair, low cost
Third, from the development trend of science and technology, the development trend of molds can be analyzed from the following six basic aspects:
v New materials - new mold materials and new molds for forming new materials for forming products;
v New process â€“ new forming process and new process of mold processing;
v New technology - technological progress has led to the gradual development of mold production towards ultra-high speed, ultra-precision and high automation;
v Informatization - digital production, information management, and full use of IT technology;
v Networking - dissolve into the use of the world's global network, set off the e-commerce boom of mold companies;
v Green manufacturing low-carbon economy â€“ use as little resources as possible to create as much value as possible, including recycling and environmental protection, not only for molds, but also for mold users. In order to cope with the general direction of environmental protection development, the mold industry will increase investment in different aspects from the "post-crisis" period to make the industry sustainable.
v 3.1, mold CAD / CAE / CAM forward integration, three-dimensional, intelligent and network development
v 3.1.1, mold software function integration
v The integration of mold software functions requires that the software's functional modules are relatively complete, and each functional module uses the same data model to achieve integrated management and sharing of information, thereby supporting the entire mold design, manufacturing, equipment, testing, testing and production management. Process to achieve the best results. For example, the UK's Delcam serialization software includes surface/solid geometry modeling, complex body engineering drawing, industrial design advanced rendering, plastic mold design expert system, complex shape CAM, art modeling and engraving automatic programming system, reverse engineering system and Complex body online measurement system, etc. The more integrated software also includes: Pro/E, UG, CAIIA, etc.
v 3.1.2, 3D of mold design, analysis and manufacturing
v Traditional two-dimensional mold structure design has become less and less suitable for modern production and integration technology requirements. Mold design, analysis, manufacturing three-dimensional, paperless requires a new generation of mold software to design the mold with a three-dimensional, intuitive feel, the three-digit model can be easily used for CAE analysis of product structure, mold can be manufactured Sexual evaluation and numerical control processing, forming process simulation and information management and sharing. Software such as Pro/E, UG, and CAIIA are characterized by parameterization, feature-based, and full correlation, which makes mold parallel engineering possible.
v 3.1.3, network trend of mold software application
v With the globalization and internationalization of molds in enterprise competition, cooperation, production and management, and the rapid development of computer hardware and software technology, the development trend of network application of mold software is to make CAD/CAE/CAM technology across regions. Promote the re-integration of technical resources across the enterprise and across the industry, making virtual design and agile manufacturing technology possible. In its "21st Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy," the United States pointed out that by 2006, the automotive industry agile production/virtual engineering program will be implemented, shortening the vehicle development cycle from 80 months to 8 months.
v 3.2, mold testing, processing equipment to the direction of precision, efficiency and multi-functional development
v 3.2.1, the mold is developing in a precise, complex and large direction
v The requirements for testing equipment are getting higher and higher. At present, domestic manufacturers use more high-precision coordinate measuring machines in Italy, the United States, Japan and other countries, and have a digital scanning function. The realization of the whole process from measuring things â†’ establishing mathematical models â†’ output engineering drawings â†’ mold manufacturing, successfully realized the development and application of reverse engineering technology.
v 3.2.2, CNC EDM machine tool
v Japan Sodick Company adopts AQ325L driven by linear motor servo. AQ550LLS-WEDM has the advantages of fast driving response, high transmission and positioning accuracy, and small thermal deformation. NCYM of Swiss Charmilles has P-E3 adaptive control, PCE energy control and automatic programming expert system. In addition, some EDMs also use techniques such as powder mixing processing, micro-finishing pulse power and fuzzy control (FC).
v 3.2.3, High Speed â€‹â€‹Milling Machine (HSM)
v Milling is an important means of cavity mold processing. High-speed milling has many advantages such as low workpiece temperature, low cutting force, stable processing, good processing quality, high processing efficiency (5-10 times for ordinary milling) and machinable hard materials (<60HRC). Therefore, it has received increasing attention in mold processing. HSM is mainly used for large and medium-sized mold processing, such as automotive cover molds, die-casting molds, large plastic molds and other surface processing.
v Further development of high-speed milling technology and its popularization and application
v In recent years, some key enterprises in China's mold manufacturing industry have introduced high-speed milling machines and high-speed machining centers, which have played a very good role in mold processing. The maximum speed of foreign high-speed machining machine spindles has exceeded 100000r/min, the rapid feed rate can reach 120m/min, the acceleration can reach 1~2g, and the tool change time can be increased to 1~2s. In this way, the processing efficiency can be greatly improved, and the surface roughness of Ra â‰¤ 1 Î¼m can be obtained, and the high hardness material of 60 HRC or more can be cut, which poses a challenge to the EDM process. As the spindle speed increases, the machine structure and its configured systems and key components and parts, tools, etc. must be matched accordingly, thus greatly increasing the cost of the machine tool.
v Therefore, within a certain period of time, the maximum speed of the spindle of high-speed machining machine tools imported by China's mold enterprises will still be 10,000~20000r/min, and a few will reach 40,000r/min. Although the development of higher speed is a direction, the most important one is to promote the application.
v High-speed machining is a revolutionary change in the cutting process. From the perspective of technological development, high-speed milling is being combined with super-finishing and dry-hard machining, which opens up a new world of milling and grinding, and greatly reduces the amount of grinding and polishing work of the mold and shortens the mold manufacturing cycle. Therefore, it can be expected that China's mold companies will increasingly apply high-speed milling technology. The birth of the virtual spindle parallel machine and the 3D laser six-axis milling machine and the application of the open control system add brilliance to the high-speed machining.
v 3.2.4, the development and development of automatic mold processing system
v With the rapid development of various new technologies, mold automatic processing systems have emerged abroad, which is also the goal of China's long-term development. The automatic mold processing system should have the following characteristics: multiple machine tools are reasonably combined, equipped with accompanying positioning fixtures or positioning discs, complete machine tool CNC library, complete CNC flexible synchronization system, and quality inspection control system.
v 3.3, the extensive use of rapid economic molding technology
v Shortening the product development cycle is one of the effective means to win market competition. Compared with traditional mold processing technology, the rapid economic molding technology has the characteristics of short molding cycle and low cost, and the precision and life can meet the production needs. Mold manufacturing technology with obvious comprehensive economic benefits.
v Rapid Prototyping (RPM) technology is a new technology in precision machine building, computer technology, NC technology, laser forming technology and materials science. It is one of the most advanced parts and mold forming methods.
v RPM technology can be used directly or indirectly in mold manufacturing. It has advanced technology, low cost, short design and manufacturing cycle, and moderate and moderate quality. From the conceptual design of the mold to the completion of manufacturing, it is only 1/3 of the time required by the conventional processing method and about 1/4 of the cost.
v Now is the era of multi-variety and low-volume production. By the next century, this production method will account for more than 75% of industrial production. On the one hand, the product has a short cycle, the variety is updated quickly, and on the other hand, the pattern of the product. Frequent changes require that the mold production cycle be as fast as possible. therefore. The development of fast and economical molds has received more and more attention. For example: development of various superplastic materials (epoxy, polyester, etc.) (or filled with metal powder, glass fiber, etc.) simple mold, medium and low melting point alloy mold, spray molding mold, rapid electroforming mold, ceramic type Rapid economic molds such as molds, ceramic blister molds, laminated dies and rapid prototyping molds. Will be further developed. Changing mold holders, quick punches, etc. will also be increasingly developed. In addition, the rapid die change device and rapid test mode technology using computer control and robot operation will also be developed and improved.
v 3.4, mold material and surface treatment technology research
v Due to improper selection of materials and materials, the mold will fail prematurely, accounting for more than 45% of the failed molds. In the whole mold price structure, the proportion of materials is not large, generally 20%-30%. Therefore, high quality steel is selected. And the application of surface treatment technology to improve the life of the mold is very necessary. For mold steel, the electroslag remelting process should be used to improve the purity, isotropicity, density and uniformity of the steel and develop higher Die steel with properties or special properties, such as powder high speed steel made by powder metallurgy. Powder high-speed steel solves the problem of material coarseness and segregation caused by the original high-speed steel smelting process, thus affecting the material. The carbide has fine carbide structure, uniform structure and no material directionality. Therefore, it has the characteristics of high toughness, good grinding process performance, high wear resistance, stable size throughout the year, and especially for the punching and high-speed punching of complicated shapes. Mold, its superiority
v is more prominent, is a promising steel, mold steel variety specifications, product refinement, productization, as long as possible to shorten the delivery time is also an important development trend.
v Heat treatment and surface treatment are the key steps to maximize the performance of the mold steel material. The main trend of mold heat treatment is: from single element to multi-element co-doping, composite doping (TD method); from general diffusion to VCD, PVD, PCVD, ion doping, ion implantation, etc.; There are: TiC, TiN, TiCN, CrN, Cr7C3, W2C, etc., while the heat treatment method is developed from atmospheric heat treatment to vacuum heat treatment. In addition, technologies such as laser strengthening, glow ion nitriding technology, and electroplating B-plating C anti-corrosion strengthening treatment are also receiving increasing attention.
v 3.5, mold grinding and polishing will be developed towards automation and intelligence
v Finishing of the mold surface is one of the difficult problems in mold processing. The quality of the mold surface has a great influence on the service life of the mold and the appearance quality of the workpiece. China is still mainly based on manual grinding and polishing, with low anger efficiency, high labor intensity and unstable quality, which restricts China. Mold processing is developed at a higher level. Therefore, research on the automation and intelligence of polishing is the development trend of mold polishing. Japan has developed a numerically controlled grinding machine that can automate and intelligentize the grinding and polishing of 3D curved surface molds. In addition, due to the complex shape of the mold control cavity, any polishing method has certain limitations. Special grinding and polishing, such as extrusion, electrochemical polishing, ultrasonic polishing and composite polishing processes and equipment, should be developed to improve the surface quality of the mold.
v 3.6, the application of mold standard parts will become increasingly widespread
v The use of mold standard parts not only shortens the mold manufacturing cycle, but also improves mold quality and reduces mold manufacturing costs. Therefore, the application of mold standard parts will become increasingly widespread. To this end, we must first establish a unified national standard, and strictly follow the standard production, followed by the gradual formation of scale production, improve the quality of standard parts, reduce costs, and then further increase the standard parts and specifications, develop and improve the network, ensure supply Car speed.
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